Five Different Types of Forklifts
Most people know what a forklift is and what it does – pull, push, carry, stack, lift, or tier materials. What they probably don’t know is that there are many different forklift types (or styles). The most basic are the rider, pallet, lift, and fork trucks. Other different forklift styles include counterbalance and three-wheel counterbalance. Then there are reach, pump, and powered pallet, side loaders, and teletrucks.
Why are there so many different types of forklift trucks? Because each type has its own features, capabilities, and hazards. This is why drivers need to be trained for the exact forklift type they use. Often, the skill set to safely operate one forklift style can’t be transferred to another. Forklift training teaches drivers how to operate the specific type of lift they use. It also teaches how to avoid the hazards that come with that type.
The first step in forklift safety is knowledge. This requires learning about the most common forklift types, how they work, and how to avoid the hazards that come with them.
Basic Forklift Types: Electric vs. Internal Combustion
Forklifts are powered by two types of engines – electric and internal combustion (IC). Each type of engine is suited for different types of work environments and job tasks. This makes the power source a key factor in which forklift style a business will use.
The advantages of electric forklifts are many. They don’t emit harmful emissions. This makes them better suited for cramped areas with poor ventilation. Electrics are quieter than IC engines. They also require less maintenance. On the downside, electric forklift types cost more to buy than IC models. However, they tend to have fewer repairs. This extends their service life, making them more cost-effective over the long run. When the battery runs down, it can take a long time to recharge. This means downtime for the truck unless the company invests in extra batteries.
IC forklift styles can run on gasoline, diesel or propane. Their engines are more powerful than electrics and can lift heavier loads. They are built to withstand rugged work conditions, whether inside or outside. IC trucks are also well suited for multi-shift operations because they can be quickly refueled. Their maintenance costs tend to run higher. They also release harmful emissions, which requires a good ventilation system when used indoors.
The forklift industry puts forklift types into seven different classes:
- Class I. Electric motor rider forklifts.These are best suited for loading and unloading tractor-trailers, handling pallets, and other indoor job tasks. They are often seen in food storage, retail, factory, and general warehousing job sites.
- Class II. Electric motor narrow aisle forklifts.These are also called reach trucks or order pickers. They are designed for easy maneuverability in tight spaces.
- Class III. Electric pallet jacks, stackers, and tow tractors.This class offers rider and walk-behind models. They are good for unloading deliveries and moving loads to a staging area where they can be handled by different types of forklifts.
- Class IV. Internal combustion cushion tire forklifts.Designed for indoor use, this class has IC engines that run on diesel fuel, LP gas, gasoline, or natural gas. Their cushioned tires provide a smooth ride on indoor surfaces, and can’t be punctured.
- Class V. Internal combustion pneumatic tire forklifts.These forklifts are similar to those in Class IV. They tend to be more durable and are used outdoors instead of inside.
- Class VI. Electric/IC engine tow tractors.These are often used for towing loads rather than lifting. They are a popular choice at airports and assembly lines. They can have electric or IC engines.
- Class VII. Rough terrain forklifts.These forklift types have large, tractor-style tires for outdoor use in rugged terrain. They are used at lumber yards and construction sites to lift building materials to above-ground work sites.
5 Different Kinds of Forklifts
Now that we’ve covered the different classes, let’s look at different kinds of forklifts:
1. High-Lift Truck
This forklift type is a heavy-duty workhorse. High-lift trucks are powered by gas or diesel, and are designed to raise loads to upper heights. This makes it ideal for lifting and moving heavy items in a variety of job sites. Airlines often use them to repair and clean aircraft. Warehouses with high racking use them to maximize the vertical space. Because of the high lifting, load limits should never be exceeded. For safety, these trucks should be kept away from the edge of loading bays or ramps.
2. Low-Lift Truck
These forklift types are not designed to lift and place materials on high shelves. Instead, they are used to raise loads just enough to permit horizontal movement. Powered by an electric engine, low-lift trucks should always have the load face uphill. They should also drive in reverse when going down ramps.
3. Rough Terrain Forklift (RTFL) Trucks
There are two different types of forklift trucks in this group: straight-mast and extended-reach. RTFLs are very mobile, and are often used in docks, timber yards, construction sites and other rough areas. Powered by diesel, RTFLs provide a safe way to travel with loads on uneven ground.
4. Straddle Truck
These forklifts are used for moving and stacking ISO standard containers for the shipping industry. They can lift up to 60 tons at low speeds. This is the same as two full containers. Straddle trucks can stack containers more than 13 ft. high. Drivers sit at the top of the truck so they can see in front and behind them. These trucks also come in mini versions to move containers around yards and depots.
5. Cantilever Trucks
These forklifts are used to handle lumber, steel bars, pipes, and other long products. Unlike other forklifts, they don’t have front uprights that can get in the way of loading and unloading. Also, they aren’t driven like other different forklift styles. They are installed onto trucks to improve the loading and unloading process.
What Type of Suspension Do Forklifts Have?
Most forklifts have a three-point suspension system that consists of two front wheels and a pivot point at the rear axle. Together, these points create a “stability triangle” that minimizes the risk that a lift will tip over, even on steep or rugged terrain.
Thanks to the stability triangle, a forklift remains level, due to the fact that its center of gravity falls within this triangle. If the lift is moving forward or backward or parked on a slope, its center of gravity shifts. In this instance, the forklift’s center of gravity falls outside the stability triangle. The result: the lift will tip over.
A forklift’s center of gravity moves any time a lift operator accelerates, brakes, or turns. Thus, a lift operator must account for the lift’s center of gravity at all times — because failure to do so could result in a tip-over.
Which Type of Forklift Is Right for You?
There is no such thing as a “one-size-fits-all” forklift. Conversely, you must evaluate several factors to find the right forklift for your business.
Key factors to consider as you assess different types of forklifts include:
- Capacity: Ensure a forklift’s maximum lifting capacity meets your business requirements
- Weight: Verify that the ground at your jobsite can handle a forklift’s weight
- Height: Assess the forklift’s height to ensure the lift can safely pass through openings across your worksite
- Fuel Type: Determine if a forklift will be used primarily indoors or outdoors; an electric lift may be a better choice indoors due to its low emissions, while a lift with an internal combustion engine offers a high carrying capacity that can make it a great option for outdoor applications
- Terrain: Find out if a forklift will be used primarily on smooth or rough terrain; a three-wheel lift is generally ideal for indoor use, while a four-wheel lift can help you safely move heavy loads on steep or level surfaces.
Learn as much as you can about the different types of forklifts, and you can make an informed decision regarding which lift is best for your company.
OSHA Requirements for Forklift Training
All the different types of forklifts have one thing in common: OSHA-approved training for safe operation. Employers must provide this training to workers at no cost. The training should cover the different forklift styles used in the workplace. It should also include written instruction, hands-on training, and a skill assessment.
Topics related to specific forklift types include:
- Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions
- The differences between the forklift and automobile
- Truck controls and instrumentation
- Engine or motor operation
- Steering and driver visibility
- Truck capacity and stability
- Fork attachments
- Inspections and maintenance needs
- Refueling and charging of the batteries
Job site topics include:
- Surface conditions
- Composition of loads
- Load stability
- Load stacking and unstacking
- Working around pedestrians
- Driving in hazardous job sites
- Safe handling on ramps and slopes
- Driving in closed job sites
OSHA also requires workers to refresh their training every three years. They should also renew their certifications. Other reasons for refresher training include:
- A forklift accident
- Workers using unsafe driving habits
- Using a different forklift type
- Work conditions change
Online training from ForkliftCertification.com is perfect for companies with different types of forklifts. Our Training Kit covers these forklift types:
- Warehouse Forklifts: Classes 1, 4, and 5
- Pallet Jacks and Order Pickers: Classes 2 and 3
- Rough Terrain Forklifts: Class 7
Online forklift training from FLC saves your business time and money. Employees can take courses anywhere they have Internet access. They can train on their own time. The full program costs only $299. Keep your forklift workers and your business safe with online training from FLC.